D. CHRISTIE, L.R.C.P. &S. Ed.
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CHARLES WILLIAM WASON
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Cornell University Library
Ten years in Manchuria :a story of medic
3 1924 023 068 772
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TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA
/iDebical /iDission morft in /iDouft&en.
DUGALD CHRISTIE, L.KC.P., L.R.C.S.Ed.,
CHITED PRESBYTERIAN OHUKOH OP SCOTLAND.
J. AND R. PARLANE, PAISLEY.
THE RELIGIOUS TRACT AND BOOK SOCIETY OF SCOTLAND, EDINBURGH.
HODLSTON AND SONS, LONDON.
The only Protestant missionaries in Manchuria are those
of the Scotch United Presbyterians and the Irish Presby-
terians. These are now united, and with the native elders
and members form the Church of Manchuria.
The following narrative only tells the story of Dr.
Christie's Medical and Evangelistic work in Moukden. If
the whole history of the Manchurian Mission were to be
written in full detail, it would fill every Christian heart
with wonder and thankfulness.
The most striking feature of that Mission is the manner
in which the Gospel has been propagated by the Chinese
converts themselves. Not only have such remarkable
evangelists arisen as Old Wang, the first man baptized by
Dr. Ross ; and Blind C/mng who has carried the Gospel to
countless multitudes ; but even to the ordinary converts
may the language of St. Paul be applied — "From you
sounded out the word of the Lord ... so that we need
not to speak any thing."
As the result of their zeal, the Gospel has penetrated far
into the interior. Messages often come to the missionaries
from towns and villages unknown to them requesting a
visit from them, and telling of numbers of professed
believers. Some one had brought them the good news,
they had received the Word gladly, and desired further
instruction in the way of Life. After journeying for some
weeks, passing from village to village, a young missionary
wrote thus — "I went in hope and returned without
disappointment. There is a magnificent work going on
here. The spiritual tide is entering from the great sea
and stealing in to these inland valleys. To oneself it is a
solemn thing to be a witness of its rise, still more to be
called to open a way for its progress."
F. W. I.
All profits from this book will he decoted to the MouMen
I. The Beginning of Medical Work
in. The New Hospital
IV. Evangelistic Work
V. Women's Work
VI. Some Conditions Which Influenob Disease
LIST OF ILLUSTEATIONS,
Hospital Assistant, Evangelist,
Portrait of General Tso
The New Hospital
Plan of Hospital
AND Students Frontiajmce.
TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA.
THE BEGINNING OF MEDICAL WORK.
"V/TANCHURIA occupies the north-east corner of
the Chinese empire. It covers an area of
about 300,000 square miles, and its population is said
to be 20,000,000. Of these, probably, only one in
twenty is of Manchu descent ; and even these have
adopted the Chinese language and habits. The bulk
of the people are Chinese, so that there is practically
little difference between Manchuria and other provinces
of Northern China. Being, however, the early home of
the present dynasty, its capital, Moukden, is considered
officially the second city of the empire. It has a
population of about 250,000, and is the literary and
commercial centre of the province. The city is sur-
rounded by a massive wall with eight imposing gate-
ways. The streets are much wider than in southern
10 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA. ,
China, but not any cleaner. The houses are all of one
storey, the people having a strong superstitious prejudice
against anything higher, except for temples. " Spirits
may dwell in towers but not human beings."
The Moukden Medical Mission having now completed
its first decade, it may be of some interest to review
the progress which has been made.
On my arrival in Manchuria in the autumn of 1882,
I visited Moukden with Rev. Mr Ross, who had already
seen good fruit of his labours there, the first convert
having been baptized in 1876. Our object was to
secure premises in which to live and carry on work.
One compound had been bought, but the feeling against
the foreigners made it difiicult to get a second. We
spent the winter in the port of Newchwang, where
several hundred patients were seen, the first being
Wang, the faithful attendant of Rev. W. C. Burns during
his last illness.
Removal to Moukden, 1883.
In May, 1883, we removed to Moukden, and property
was acquired for a Medical Mission house in the east
suburb of the city. During the months while it was
building both families had to be crowded into one small
house. The contrast now is very marked; our little
terrace containing four comfortable dwelling-houses.
THE BEGINNING OP MEDICAL WORK. 11
The congregation, the first time I saw it, was but small,
and met in a humble low-roofed house. Now from two
to three hundred worship every Sunday in a large
The arrival of a foreign doctor in Moukden, even one
who as yet knew but little of the language, caused some
stir ; and as soon as I was able to see patients, people
came in crowds. Not much actual work was done, I
fear ; for the object of many was merely to see the
foreigner. It was often difficult to know whether the
disease was real or feigned ; and it is questionable how
much of the medicine was ever used. After a time the
excitement died down, and the numbers diminished
rapidly. A small room in Mr Ross's compound was
kindly placed at my disposal, and fitted up as a
dispensary ; it was opened for regular work in
June, about thirty patients coming each dispensing
day. In three months the numbers increased to
sixty or eighty ; but it was slow work. The
patients were as much taken up with the strange
foreigner as with their own symptoms; and their
language was still a hindrance. There was no
trained assistant, so that I had to make up my own
prescriptions. Consulting-room and dispensary were in
one ; and the waiting-room was so small that preaching
was sometimes, during the hot weather, carried on in
12 TEN YEARS IX MANCHURIA.
the open air. Such ^yere the humble beginnings of
During the months of August and September, a
terrible epidemic of cholera visited the country. Native
treatment, which seemed to consist largely in piercing
with needles, was worse than useless, and the mortality
in Moukden city was very great. Yet this calamity
turned out for the good of our work ; for great numbers
came for medicine, and thus much prejudice was
There was still, however, a great deal of suspicion of
the foreigner and his drugs. Some said that the
missionaries were but the vanguard of an English host
who were coming to invade China. Others were con-
vinced that our medicine could change the hearts of
those who used it, and compel them to follow the
foreigner and believe his doctrine. A Mandarin came
one day to have a painful tooth extracted, and so afraid
was he of our drugs that he could not be persuaded
even to wash out his mouth -with the water provided.
The old story was soon set afloat, that children's hearts
and eyes were taken out and used for concocting drugs,
or for photographic purposes. One day during the
summer of 1884, a French Catholic priest called on us,
THE BEGINNING OF MEDICAL WORK. 13
clad in the usual long black robe. He came in a cart,
stayed some time in our house, and then returned home.
The dispensary was at the time full of patients, so that
many knew of his visit. A day or two afterwards
crowds gathered outside our gate, and there was con-
siderable excitement. The story believed by all was as
follows : — The Catholics and we were very anxious to
obtain children's eyes and hearts, and were willing to
give large sums of money for them. When the priest
called, he brought under his robe a little child. We
retired into a dark room, weighed it, removed the eyes
and heart, and agreed upon the price. This trade in
children had .been carried on for some time, and the
next day three carts left the city laden with hearts and
eyes. Three points of the story were true. A little
Mohammedan child was lost, the priest did call on us,
and a foreigner, who had been in Moukden, did leave
the city with three carts on the day after the visit.
About the same time a mother brought her young
daughter for treatment; and while the woman was
detailing to me the symptoms, the girl, frightened at
the sight of the foreigner, slipped out of the room.
When the flow of the mother's eloquence subsided, she
looked round, but her daughter was gone ! In great
excitement she rushed back to the waiting-room, but
she was not there. There was then a general search
inside and outside the compound, but in vain. The
14 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA.
mother, in the meantime, firmly convinced that we had
stolen the girl, became violent, and loudly insisted that
she be given up. At last someone suggested that she
might have run off to the inn where they were staying.
A man was sent to see, and there the little fugitive was,
glad to have escaped safely from the awful foreigner.
Even when this news was brought, it was with difficulty
that we got the terrified woman to leave the compound.
Of course this was the last we saw of our patient.
Placards have at times been posted on our gates
calling on the populace to drive the intruders out of
the country, but nothing ever came of this ; and we in
Manchuria have but little to complain of, as we have
met with a very different reception from that given to
missionaries in some parts of China. Those fears and
suspicions which were at first entertained have now
entirely died out; though now and again something
occurs to remind us that the eye is a suspicious member.
Only last Spring a little girl came with a very unsightly
growth on one eye, which seriously injured her chances
of a good marriage. Her mother, who had been in the
hospital before, seemed to have great trust in us, and
was much interested in Christian truth. As they were
anxious to have the growth removed I performed the
necessary operation, and afterwards presented the
patient with a false eye. The mother was much pleased
at first, as it fitted perfectly, and greatly improved the
THE BEGINNING OF MEDICAL WORK. 15
appearance of the girl. A day or two after leaving us,
however, she brought the child back and asked me to
take out the eye, making an excuse, and saying she
would return for it. This she has never done ; and I
have no doubt that her friends frightened her out of
keeping a foreign eye.
One of our great hindrances from a medical point of
view is, that so many of our patients are treated first
after native methods, and only come to us when their
own doctors say there is no hope. But the proportion
of cases brought to us in their early stages has
increased year by year, giving conclusive proof of
increasing confidence. A rather unwelcome proof of
this came to my knowledge lately in the town of
Tie-ling. We heard that foreign medicines had been
sold on the street by a man supposed to be a church
member ; and I was much concerned lest there had been
dishonesty in the dispensary. On making enquiries
through the Elder of the church there, the truth came
out. The man was neither member nor enquirer, but
he found he could get a readier sale for his sham drugs
if he called them foreign, and he learned one of our
hymns to convince the people of his connection with us.
Each morning, after setting up his little tent on the
street, he sang his hymn, and when the crowd gathered
he displayed his medicines, guaranteeing them as the
genuine foreign article.
16 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA.
In the autumn of 1883, "we were able to enter our
new house, and at the same time the temporary
dispensary was removed to a building in our own
compound. A young man named Wei was engaged as
dispenser, another named Chang was appointed
evangelist, and Lui Fu acted as gatekeeper. This
man was one of the most faithful agents I ever had,
and was valued by all who knew his worth. He died
in 1890, when I was on furlough, and I have felt his
One of our early patients in this compound was a
middle-aged man, who was led by his little daughter to
the dispensary, almost blind. At one time he had
occupied a good position as writer in one of the
government offices, but, through failure of his sight and
opium smoking, had lost his situation. He sank lower
and lower, till at this time he, his wife, and three
children, were in a state of beggary. Under treatment,
his eyes gradually improved ; and he always listened
attentively to the preaching. One day I overheard
him telling another patient, " God has had mercy on
me, and has opened my eyes." On returning home, he
regained his old situation, and soon his family were
oace more in a comfortable position. But for nearly
twenty years he had been an opium smokex-, and he
found that this habit was undermining his health.
THE BEGINNING OF MEDICAL WORK. 17
After trying in vain to give it up without help, he
came to us as an in-patient. He is one of the few
opium smokers who have proved satisfactory. All
along, he seemed sincere in attributing what was done
for him to God's mercy. He has never entered the
church — a very difficult step for a man in government
employ — but he comes to see us when he visits
Moukden, and is always ready to own himself a believer
in Christ. He is a good scholar, and has read many of
our books. In the case of other patients, the obstacles
were fewer ; and in December of this year (1883) our
hearts were cheered by the baptism of two men, the
first-fruits of the Moukden Medical Mission.
City Dispensary, 1884..
A year after coming to Moukden, a larger dispensary
was opened inside the city, where patients were seen
two days each week ; the place in our own compound
being open daily. Another year had to pass before we
were in a position to. take in-patients. During this
time those on whom operations were performed had to
stay in their own homes or in inns near us. One of
these was an old Buddhist priest, whose eyes were
extensively diseased. His sight improved greatly, and
a year later he returned for further treatment. The
words he had heard, so different from the religion he
had followed for so many years, had made a great
18 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA.
impression on his mind ; and he seemed very anxious to
understand more fully the way of life. The double
blessing was bestowed ; he left us seeing fairly well, and
after a few weeks was baptized, at the age of seventy-
three, along with two other patients. Though now
nearly eighty-three, and feeble with advancing age, he
may still be seen at church every Sunday.
TIPROM the beginning of our work we have beea
fortunate in having a large number of patients and
friends among the official class. This is an important
matter, as the common people are greatly influenced
by the attitude which the mandarins take up regarding
us. Within a month after arrival, our first official
patient called. A simple operation cured him of a most
distressing complaint ; and till his death in 1890, he
remained our staunch friend. Although a heavy
opium-smoker he was always ready to exercise his
influence in favour of our work. He was followed by
others, many of whom invited me to their homes, where
not only the officials themselves, but their wives and
children were treated. Since then, we can number
among our patients many hundreds of officials, from the
Governor of the Province downwards. Special mention
should be made of our old friend Gao Tao-tai, one of
20 TEN YEAES IN MANCHUKIA.
the most intelligent Chinamen I have met with, and a
■warm friend to all missionaries. I soon was installed as
his family physician, and had constant intercourse with
all his household. He not only was ready to listen to
Christian truth when explained, but studied the Bible
and examined the claims of Christianity for himself;
and, although he never made public profession of his
faith, we have every reason to believe he died a sincere
believer in Christ. But such cases are rare, and direct
spiritual work among these ofJficials is difficult. They
like to know of our western inventions and science,
but few of them care much for any religion, whether ours
or their own. We give away books, and put in a word
here and there, and some are interested ; but the
barriers between Chinese official life and the Christian
Church seem at present well-nigh insurmountable.
In the spring of 1885 a small rickety building behind
our house was opened as a temporary hospital. Within
two months thirty in-patients were admitted, and nine-
teen eye-operations were performed, two of them for
On the second of May an elderly man, a farmer,
living some miles from Moukden,came to the dispensary
to have his eyes treated. The disease was of long
standing, and he was almost blind. On his second visit,
two days later, he stumbled and fell outside our gate.
He was carried into the dispensary, and I found his left
leg badly fractured. Our hospital was not yet ready for
opening, the kang (brick stove-bed) being still damp ;
but the poor old fellow had no friends in Moukden, so
rather against our will we were compelled to admit our
first in-patient. After thirty-three days he returned
home, his leg cured, his sight partially restored, and
with a fair knowledge of the teaching to which
he had been listening.
A few days before he left, we admitted our first
cataract case. This was a merchant in the city whose
right eye had been blind for several years. He had
come to us eighteen months before, but, having no
place for in-patients, we had done nothing for him.
The sight of his left eye was now rapidly failing from
the same cause. There was a good deal of interest
shown in this case, as, so far as I know, it was the first
cataract operated on in Manchuria. It was really done
in public ; for, the little hospital being very dark, the
operating table was drawn out to the open air, and a
number of people gathered round. All went well ; and
when I held up my fingers and the people heard him
count them correctly, there was quite a sensation.
When he left us eighteen days later, he seemed to
22 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA.
be an earnest enquirer, and several in his store bought
Christian books; but somehow he has never gone
beyond enquiry. Two years afterwards, the left eye
was successfully operated on, and now, with the aid of
a pair of foreign spectacles, he sees almost as well as
any one. On leaving, he gave a good subscription to
the hospital. He still continues to come about us, and
says he prays to the Heavenly Father, and believes in
Christ ; but he shows no desire to acknowledge his
faith openly. It is often the case that a man is much
interested in our teaching, but cares to go no further.
One of these first patients, as a thank-offering, bought
a quantity of Christian books for free distribution in
his native village, yet he himself has never joined us.
Thus the results of our work can only partially be
gauged by the number of admissions to the membership
of the church, for much Christian knowledge is
disseminated even where the church does not visibly
gain. In the eight months of 1885 during which our
hospital was open there were, however, ten patients
baptized. One of these was a skin merehant in
the city, who from the first seemed to value more than
health the knowledge of Christ he gained while with
us. He was a most earnest enquirer, talking with the
hospital evangelist by the hour, and telling other
patients the good news he himself had so gladly
received. Before he left the hospital he was baptized.
and afterwards attended the Sunday services with great
faithfulness, though his health was very bad. Two and
a half years later, I was asked to go to see him in his
own house, as he could not leave the kang. I found
him lying in a miserable little room behind his shop,
and as I entered, about thirty people crowded in after
me. He was dying of an incurable disease, and he
knew it ; but his mind was at rest. As he heard me
coming he called out as loudly as his feebleness
allowed, " The Lord protect you," a common salutation
among members. I drew near, and asked if he had
peace. Unhesitatingly, he answered, " Yes, in my
heart there is perfect peace." After speaking to him
for a. little while, and saying a few words to the
by-standers, I prayed with him, and turned to go. He
took hold of my hand with both his, and bade me
farewell, saying, "We shall meet again." He died a
few hours afterwards.
At the time of the heavy summer rains one wall of
the hospital fell, and it seemed as if the others would
follow ; but the house was successfully propped up and
compelled to give shelter to our sick folk for some time
longer, though it was miserably cold in winter.
First Death in the Hospital,
About the middle of September a man came to us
who had at one time occupied the much respected
24 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA.
position of school teacher. A number of years before,
his eye-sight began to fail, and soon became so bad that
he was unable to pursue his calling. Totally blind for
four years, he was now led to the dispensary in a state
of poverty and despair. Examination revealed cataract
in both eyes. He gladly submitted to operation, which
was followed with most satisfactory results, and in a few
weeks he was able to read without difficulty. He
stayed with us for some time, acquired a fair knowledge
of Christian truth, and, whether listening to the Gospel
or reading our books for himself, was a most intelligent
and eager enquirer. Towards the end of November I
started on a medico-evangelistic journey, leaving the
few in-patients under the charge of my assistant Uri.
This man was rejoicing over the recovery of his vision,
and looking forward to earning an honest livelihood
once more ; and he expressed to me his great desire to
be baptized. But when I returned home a fortnight
later he was dead. A few days after I left he had an
attack of inflammation of the lungs ; he was poorly clad,
and the room being very cold and draughty the disease
developed rapidly. A mounted messenger was sent for
me, but I arrived too late ; he had died the day before.
This was the first death under our roof; but we have
good hope that death proved to him the gate of Life.
After this the hospital was closed for the remainder of
Early in 1886 a small band of robbers were creating
great depredations among some villages and scattered
homesteads in the far east. A company of sixteen
soldiers were sent to put them down, but weeks passed
before they could even be found. At last some villagers
gave information as to where the gang was lodged.
When night came the soldiers surrounded the house ;
but the robbers had the alarm given, and all but one
escaped. This one took up his position behind the
door, which was very small, admitting only one person
at a time. A fine young fellow volunteered to lead
the attack, and the door was soon forced ; but the
robber, a man of enormous strength, was well armed,
and made a desperate resistance. The soldier had his
sword ready, and gave his opponent a severe wound on
the head, which the latter returned by lodging the
contents of his pistol, a foreign one, in the intruder's
right thigh. But other soldiers now pressed in, the
ruffian was overcome, bound, and, after brutal tortures,
conveyed to Moukden, where he was executed. A
fortnight later a military officer called on me, present-
ing the card of the Moukden Tao-tai, and asking if I
would do his Excellency the favour of treating the
wounded soldier. When the man was admitted, I found
that his health had suffered considerably from the
knocking about which he had received in travelling.
26 TEN YEARS IN MANCHUEIA.
The injured leg was much swollen, and suppuration had
set in. After two days rest, good food, and proper
dressing of the wound, the imflammation somewhat
subsided, and the situation of the bullet was detected.
The lao-tai, interested in the case, sent an officer to
witness the extraction, an operation which native
doctors could never attempt. The bullet was removed
without difficulty, and the officer took it away with him
to present to his General (General Tso). The patient
made a rapid recovery, and left us after a month able
to walk as well as ever. The Governor-General sent
him a present of twenty taels (£5), and other mandarins
followed suit. After leaving us he was decorated with
a " White Button " as a reward for his gallant action.
He was a Mohammedan, and showed little interest in
our teaching ; but his case was of great use in making
our work known, and disarming suspicion, especially
among soldiers and military mandarins. General Tso*
* General Tso was killed at the battle of Ping Yang, September loth,
1894. Dr Christie writes thus of his death : " To us it is the loss of »
personal friend. I have known General Tso for over ten years, and he
always shewed himself well worthy of the respect in which he was held
by all classes. The poor will miss him this winter, for his soup-kitchens
were the salvation of many a starving family. The orphans will miss
him, for a Foundling Hospital was established and chiefly supported by
him. At the time of the floods in 1888, 1 saw him with his own hands
distributing food to the famishing. Though a strict Mohammedan, he
was always friendly to our Christian religion, especially in its benevolent
aspect. Only a few months ago, he presented a handsome Tablet and
subscription to our hospital. He was a brave general, a strict disciplin-
arian, and a terror to law-breakers. He will be missed by all Moukden,
and by none more than the missionaries.''
2S TEN YEAltS IN MANCHURIA.
the Commander of the Chinese forces in Manchuria,
has been our good friend ever since.
A few weeks later, a poor ragged blind man found
his way to our gate, and begged for admission to the
hospital. As we were already over-filled, having
seventeeen in-patients in our small house, and as but
little could be done for his eyes, we at first refused.
But when he told his story, — how he had come from a
village near Mai-mai-gai, over a hundred miles away,
how he had been attacked by the way and robbed of
one hundred tiaos (£2 10/) which he had saved for his
expenses in Moukden, and how he had no money to pay
for a lodging, — we felt that room must be made for him.
We have great reason to be thankful that this man was
not turned away, for he was no other than "Blind
Ch'ang of Tai-ping-gow," whose name is well known,
both in Manchuria and in our church at home. Never
had we a patient who received the Gospel with such
joy, and the rapidity with which he grasped the leading
truths of Christianity was remarkable. After a month,
his sight being somewhat improved, and another com-
plaint from which he suffered cured, he returned home,
but without baptism, as we wished to test his character
and sincerity. He had been well known in his own
village as a gambler and everything that was bad, so
that on his return people laughed at his new religion.
" It is all very well for him to reform," they said, " for
he cannot gamble without eyes ! " But nothing could
shake his faith in Christ, and soon it became evident
that it was no passing fancy, but that a lasting change
had been produced in his life. In fulfilment of a pro-
mise made to him in Moukden, Eev. Mr Webster visited
his honie, Tai-ping-goiv, in October. Instead of finding
one poor bliad man to baptize, there was quite a
company of believers and enquirers ; and the visible
church in that neighbourhood was founded by the
baptism oinine. There have been great advances since
then, and the church in Mai-mai-gai, Tai-ping-gow,
and the villages round, now numbers two hundred.
Many of these have never seen the blind man, but well
might one of them say, " Had Chdng-shun never been
blind there might have been no Christians here yet."
He has many faults, but his zeal has never grown cold,
and as an evangelist for breaking new ground there is
not his superior. He is now in a valley in the far east,
a hundred miles from Tai-ping-gow, where thirty
have been brought in through his preaching, and
many more are enquiring. He receives no salary,
but his flock there support him. He lives in each
house in turn, and when he needs new clothes the
women make them for him. When we first saw
him he was but thirty-seven years of age, so that
30 TEN YEARS IN MAN(5HURIA.
we may hope that he will witness for Christ for many
years to come.
Wreck of the Hospital.
When the heavy rains came round once more, our
hospital, which in the former summer had caused much
apprehension, fell and became a total wreck. For two
months we had no accommodation at all for in-patients,
and then we succeeded in renting for a year a
compound to the east of our dwelling-house. The
buildings were not very suitable, but were much better
than the one which had collapsed.
There was in Moukden at this time a merchant who
had suffered since childhood from a very painful
disease. For two years he had not had a night's rest,
sleeping only by snatches. He was thirty-eight years
of age, but the constant pain was ageing him before his
time. A year before this, he had consulted me, but
when I explained to him the nature of the operation
which was the only means of saving his life, he refused
to submit to it. He then returned to the native
doctors, of whom, he told me, he had consulted about a
hundred, besides several witches; but their treatment
only added to his suffering. He was one of those who
hated the foreigner, and lost no opportunity of reviling
US. But at last, as his only chance for life, he resolved
to submit to our treatment. He came in November,
1886, weak, emaciated, excitable, and worn out with
prolonged pain and sleeplessness. It was an anxious
■case for us. He was well-known among merchants, a
«lass who looked with great disfavour on our presence
here ; and the operation, if successful, might do much
to break down their prejudices. Failure, on the other
hand, might have serious consequences in raising evil
reports against us. The operation, however, was
successful, and the patient recovered without a bad
sympton. A few weeks after returning home he sent a
subscription to the hospital, and put up a handsome
tablet as an expression of gratitude.
Happily, his interest did not end there. He
-continued to enquire into our religion and study our
books, and about three years later was admitted into
the church. Unfortunately, though he himself was a
sincere Christian, he had a very great hindrance in his
wife. She had no sympathy with religion of any
Jkind, and always bore her husband a grudge for
becoming a Christian, so much so, that she put every
obstacle in the way of his attendance at the Sunday
services, and prevented their children from receiving
Christian instruction. We never suspected this, for she
came to the dispensary quite readily, and appeared
exceedingly friendly. Years passed on, until in
32 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA.
spring (1893) he had a serious attack of pleurisy. The
weather was extremely cold, so although he wished to
be removed to the hospital, I thought it better to leave
him in his own home which was fairly comfortable.
His wife had always seemed a very capable person.
Minute instructions as to treatment were given, and
one of my assistants visited him several times daily.
But the progress of his malady was most incompre-
hensible. One day he would improve so rapidly that
we thought him out of danger ; next day he would be
worse than ever. More than once he begged me with
tears in his eyes to take him to the hospital, saying
that he knew he would get well there, but that at
home he would certainly die. With a temperature,,
however, little above zero, I dare not risk taking him
into the open air. Had I known then what we found
out afterwards, the removal would certainly have been
ventured as his only chance. All the time that we
were doing our utmost for him, his wife was secretly
consulting native doctors ; and the alternations of
medicines accounted for the strange rapid improvements
and sudden relapses. The whole circumstances are
very suspicious, and point to a desire on the woman's-
part for his death. For several nights I had sent a
man to sit up with him and administer the medicines ;
and we were hoping that the worst was past. Then
one evening my man was sent home, the wife insisting
that she would do all that was wanted. Next morning,
he was worse. I went to see him in the afternoon, and
found her, certainly administering the contents of our
medicine bottles, but they only contained water, the
medicines having been poured out. It was now too
late to save him. He knew he was dying, and spoke to
me in whispers of Christ and the Home to which he was
going, and, after prayer, I left him. Just before the end
he sent for me, as he had something special to say.
But when I arrived I found that the usual wailing had
already begun, for he was dead. He was buried with
great pomp as a heathen, but we know that he himself
is with Christ.
In accounts of Medicial Mission work all over China,
it may be noticed that there is a small number of
amputations. This is by no means because diseased
limbs are uncommon, for hardly a week passes without
such cases coming under our notice. But many a
Chinaman would rather die than lose a leg or an arm :
when laid in his cofEn he must be complete, fearing he
hardly knows what in the dim unknown if any part of
him be amissing. Another reason is the want of
confidence in any doctor's verdict, and the lingering
hope that, after all, the painful member may yet get
better without any knife. This hope is less unreasonable
34 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA.
than one would at first think, for the Chinese have
wonderful recuperative powers. The longer I am in
China, the longer time of probation I allow before
pronouncing the terrible word, amputation.
About the same time as the last mentioned patient
was with us, a young fellow of twenty came, whose
elbow joint had been extensively diseased for five years,
and was now getting rapidly worse. I proposed to excise
the joint, or if necessary take off the arm, but to this he
would not submit. He stayed with us two months, but
in spite of careful treatment was little improved ; and
when he left us it was with the promise to return in
Spring for whatever operation I thought necessary. He
took with him, however, materials for proper treatment
of the diseased part, and it began to get gradually
better. A few months later he came for more medicines,
and to our surprise his arm was in a fair way to recovery.
In a few months more the cure was complete, though
the joint remained somewhat stiff, He was of a very
bright happy disposition, and a great favourite in the
hospital. Before long he too applied for baptism, and
in his village home has been the means of leading many
into the Church.
Our first major amputation was performed in the
Summer of 1887. Three months before, while the
patient was carting stones from the hills, a large stone
fell out of the cart, coming with great violence against
his arm, shattering it, and knocking him down so that
the wheel passed over his foot. He was carried home
and a native doctor sent for, who, without attempting, to
replace the bones, applied to the arm the universally-
used black plaster, and told him not to move it. After
a week it was noticed that the fingers were getting
black, and on removing the plaster the whole forearm
was found to be dead or dying. Since then matters
had grown steadily worse, and now, after three months
suffering, doctors and friends had given up all hope of
recovery, and the patient was carried to the dispensary
in a dying condition. He was much emaciated, in pain
with bed sores, and so weak that he could hardly speak.
One end of the fractured bone was protruding for more
than an inch, and a splint of millet-stalk, which had
been used as a support for the arm, had got imbedded
in the tissues, so that the least movement caused severe
pain and bleeding. The smell from the putrefying arm
was most trying to the patient and all about him, and
his foot too was very painful. He and his friends were
anxious for amputation as his only hope. He was
already dying, and if we could not cure him it would at
all events be an easy way to get quit of life. After a
few days the operation was performed. His heart was
so feeble that for some time we feared he would not
rally from the chloroform. He came round, however,
and from that day steadily gained strength. After four
36 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA.
months he was dismissed cured, and he presented the
hospital with ten taels (about £2 10/). Since then there
have been many patients from his village.
THE NEW HOSPITAL. 37
THE NEW HOSPITAL.
"pr^OR some months we had been making strenuous
efforts to get a suitable compound for a permanent
hospital and dispensary, but this was no easy matter.
Time after time we seemed about to succeed, but the
desired property slipped from our grasp. At last, in
June, 1887, a friendly Mandarin, whose house was not
more than a hundred yards east of ours, received an ap-
pointment to another province, and consented to sell us
his compound. The site was in every way suitable,
sheltered to the north, and with a fine open out-look
to the south. We utilized the existing buildings for
the hospital, and erected an entirely new dispensary.
All summer the work of building was carried on
vigorously. The temporary hospital was closed in
September, and in November the new premises were
completed. The Mission Board of our church had
supported us liberally in this matter. " The Children's
New Year Offering" for 1886 was devoted to the
building fund, and everything was sanctioned which
'['he NfU" Hosjiital.
THE NEW HOSPITAL. S9
could make our equipment complete. We were
generously helped also by friends unconnected with
our church in the Port of Newchwang and elsewhere.
On the 10th November, a number of official friends
assembled, and the new premises were formally opened
by His Excellency Feng Hsiu, President of the Board
of War. All the missionaries in Manchuria were also
present. In the afternoon there was a large gathering,
of members and former patients, who united in
expressions of good wishes for the future of the work.
Our Medical Mission thus entered on a new stage of
development. Hitherto the work had been seriously
hampered by want of sufficient accommodation, but
now we were fully equipped for in and out-door work.
The waiting-room could hold about 150, and the
hospital could accommodate fifty men and fifteen
women. God's blessing has followed us in our com-
fortable wards, as formerly in our more humble
One of those brought to a knowledge of Christ during
that winter was a lad of twenty-one, whose leg was-
diseased. He very quickly became interested in the
doctrine, grasped the truth with remarkable intelligence,,
and soon began to tell others of God's mercy. Often
did I find him pleading earnestly with the patients-
round him, to forsake idols and believe in the true
Saviour. He was with us for several months, and his-
40 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA.
leg, which was operated on, improved steadily. But ia
his joy at being able to walk once more, he left his
room one day and wandered out to the compound when
a cold wind was blowing. The result was an attack of
acute inflammation of the lungs, from which he sank
rapidly. He was anxious for baptism, so the rite was
administered one afternoon in the presence of other
patients and the assistants. We then gathered round
him, and sang at his request, " There is a happy land,
far, far away." That evening as I was passing through
the ward I heard his feeble voice calling me in a
whisper : " Tai-fu," * he said, " there is only one thing
more I want. I want Jesus to come quickly and take
me to Himself" His wish was granted. In the
stillness of the night-time the Master called him home.
During the summer of 1888 there was an unusual
amount of rain in the mountains to the east where our
rivers rise. In Moukden, on the other hand, there was
drought ; but this was followed by an almost incessant
downpour during the former half of August. Dark
rumours began to be circulated of floods among the
hills, and men shook their heads as the water steadily
rose in the Hun river, which flows past Moukdei;i
about two miles to the east and south. A few hundred
* Title given to Medical Missionaries.
THE NEW HOSPITAL. 41
yards to the east of our dwelling houses, and just out-
side the outer wall of the city, are a large number of
springs. These form the " small river " which flows
past our doors about twelve feet below the terrace on
which our houses are built. It was feared that the big
river might overflow, and the surplus waters find a
way for themselves down the small river; and these
fears were realized. On the evening of the 13th of
August a large volume of water from the hills came
rushing down the valley of Him, carrying destruction
with it. Village after village was swept away, and in
some no one was left to tell the tale. From one
village the only survivor was a woman, who was carried
down ten miles supported by a piece of wood under her
arms. One of my present students was then a boy in
his father's home in a small hamlet about fifteen miles
up the river. He says the water rose rapidly and with
terrible force, so that there was no time to escape to
higher ground. House after house came down, and the
inmates gathered on the fallen walls. They had little
hope of life, but clung to the ruins with the energy of
despair. For a whole night and a day they stood there
without food, the water reaching tlie waist and armpits ;
and when at last the flood subsided, eleven were missing
from that one small hamlet. This is but an example
of what happened in many a village all over the wide
42 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA.
Meantime the torrent had swept onward until, at a
point about two miles east of Moukden, where stands a
large woodyard, the banks of the Hun gradually gave
way. The greater mass of water left the course of the
river, and poured down in the direction of the small
river, submerging miles of low-lying, closely populated
country. About eight o'clock, on the morning of the
14th, the water in the small river began to rise with
extraordinary rapidity, reaching in about three hours
a height of fifteen feet. The quiet slow water below
our gates was turned into a deep foaming torrent ; and
beyond that stretched a great angry sea, out of which
here and there stood clumps of trees with men and
women clinging to the branches. Logs from the wood-
yard, bundles of millet-stalk, trees torn up by the roots,
tables, chairs, and all kinds of household utensils were
swept past. Then came horses, mules, cows, dogs ; some
already drowned, others struggling for life ; followed by
human beings clinging to floating pieces of wreckage, or
huddled together on hastily constructed rafts. It was
impossible for us to render much assistance, but we did
what we could, and more than one life was saved. Our
mission terrace was transformed into an island. At our
own gate the water was several feet deep. The eastern
wall of our compound and part of the gate-house were
swept away. All the mission compounds were sub-
merged, and water was in two of the houses. About
THE NEW HOSPITAL. 43
4 p.m. the highest point was reached, about sixteen feet
above the usual level of the small river, and in the
evening the water began slowly to subside.
It is hardly possible to estimate the loss of life caused
by this flood. -Some villages were wiped out entirely,
others lost a considerable portion of their inhabitants.
In Moukden a large part of the suburbs was under
water, and hundreds were said to be drowned. The loss
of property was still greater, very many persons being
permanently reduced from a state of easy comfort to
extreme poverty. All over Manchuria the rivers were
flooded more or less, and the crops in great measure
destroyed ; so that the distress was very wide spread.
As a consequence of the flood, a fever epidemic
visited Moukden. The hospital was full of patients at
the time, and several were infected. Among the women-
patients was a Mohammedan, blind from cataract. I
operated, and great was her joy to see the light of day
after eight years' darkness. Next day she was down
with fever ; and shortly afterwards I too was taken
ill, and after some weeks was ordered home on furlough.
The immediate effects of the flood, however, were not
the most disastrous ; only when the severe cold of
winter set in was the misery of the great mass of the
population realized. The harvest had been destroyed
in vast regions of rich grain country, and famine
followed with its attendant famine-fever. The distress
Dispensary, Siilc View.
THE NEW HOSPITAL. 45
was beyond description. One good, however, resulted
from this evil : many people found out that the foreign-
ers were their friends, for every Missionary was busy in
the work of famine relief. Dr Young, who carried on
the Medical Mission during my absence, did good work
among the fever-stricken people. Large numbers were
treated, both in the dispensary and in temporary
premises at the other side of the citj^ placed at the
disposal of the mission by our friend General Tso. The
influence of the work was thus greatly extended.
In 1892 it was found necessary to close the hospital
for six months. Its buildings, which, it will be
remembered, were not new when opened in 1888, were
now in need of extensive repair, and some alterations
were also made. The position of the Women's Hospital,
so near to the men's, prevented women from readily
entering it ; so the building was now altered, and made
to form part of the men's quarter, another small
compound being temporarily rented for female patients.
Hitherto our only room for operations had been that
marked in the plan " Hall for Meetings." But this was,
for many reasons, unsuitable ; so a new operating-room
was now built, well lighted both from the roof and from
side-windows. One great defect in our hospital arrange-
ments had hitherto baffled us, — we could not entirely
prevent the Kangs from smoking. As this is specially
harmful to eye-patients, we decided to remove the
PLAN OF HOSPITAL.
rr_ R_ E.E-.s
I'll i;f=*iii I I 1 I I I I I
— « -
Fence -Z — -'
XXX XX,.w„y, .X X i|^„,„„
. o ' —
THE NEW HOSPITAL. 47
Kangs from the eye-ward and substitute iron beds,
heating the room in winter by a stove. This experiment
had been a signal success both in summer and winter ;
so much so that we were anxious to place beds in two
other of our large wards.
We now find patients muchreadier to enter the hospital
than they were in the early days of our work. We of
course take care never to press any one to stay with us ;
but indeed this is not necessary. Another consequence
of the change in the attitude of the people is, that we
can do many things now which would have been very
unwise at first. In the early years a death after an
operation would have been most injurious to our work,
and I was always unwilling to take in patients for whom
there was little hope of life. Two of the three patients
who died under our roof in 1893 would probably have
been refused admittance seven or eight years ago. But
now our cause is rather furthered than hindered by
receiving such cases. When a poor penniless wretch,
broken down by incurable disease, is taken into our
comfortable wards, clothed, fed, and cared for, his
sufferings alleviated, his sores dressed, his last days
made happy by the consolations of the Gospel, — the
heathen who see and hear of it learn practically what is
meant by the religion of Christ.
48 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA.
But though we have so many proofs of the confidence
placed in us, we are by no means without disappointments
and vexations. " Professional Etiquette " is unknown
in China. When one doctor's medicine fails to cure
within a few days, another is called without the first
being even informed ; and it is quite common to use
the medicine of two doctors at once, in the hope that
if one does not cure the other may. Even some who
have manifestly benefited by our treatment, turn to
their own doctors with aggravating readiness. In the
spring of this year I was asked to visit the Lieutenant-
Governor of the province, who was suffering from an
attack of acute rheumatism. I found him lying in
agony on his Kang, the least movement causing intense
pain. Native treatment had produced no effect, and he
was convincod that he was dying. As this man was
strongly anti-foreign, and had only sent for me as a last
resource, it was fortunate that his malady was one
which readily yielded to treatment. I assured him
that if he would take our medicine, he would very soon
be relieved. Two days later I called again, and he met
me at the door walking without assistance. The cure
was certainly marvellously rapid, and his household
looked upon it as little short of a miracle. After a few
days we heard that a native doctor had been called in
again, and was taking to himself the whole credit of the
THE NEW HOSPITAL. 49
cure. Some months afterwards, however, this patient
called on me in state, and was exceedingly friendly, but
neither he nor I referred to his illness.
Sometimes even the readiness of a patient to trust
us absolutely, causes trouble ; as when a man has such
faith in our medicine as to swallow the prescription
along with the pill. On one occasion I put a clinical
thermometer into a man's mouth to take his temperature,
and before I could stop him he had crunched it to
powder and was .proceeding to swallow it. We are
often hindered, too, by the extreme stupidity of our
patients, especially women. Last year a woman came
to us suffering from hip-joint disease, and after operation
her leg was put in splints. She at once began to
complain of the discomfort, and cried herself ill, so that
the splints had to be removed. She then promised to
lie quite flat and straight ; but after a few hours she
was found sitting up with her leg bent. Some days later,
she was seized with dysentery,and a small piece of the rind
of a coarse kind of melon was found among her bed-clothes.
A friend had smuggled it in, and she had eaten it all,
even the rind. She was once more beginning to
improve, when she began to cry to go home. She was
tired of our strictness in diet, and saw no connection
between food and her disease. " I am going home to
50 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA.
eat as much fruit as I like," she said. " If I don't die
I'll come back to have my leg cured; if I die, there's an
end of it." She went home, and died in four days.
Gratitude of Patients.
As a rule, however, our patients thoroughly
appreciate what is done for them, and manifest much
gratitude. They are accustomed to such exorbitant
charges by their own doctors that our "freei healing"
seems wonderful to them. A young man with a large
tumour was carried to the hospital one day in a basket.
A native doctor had undertaken to cure him him for
24 tiaos (12/), 10 of which were paid on the spot ; but
his treatment only aggravated the disease. He had
not been long with us when he was on the fair way
to recovery, and then the native doctor put in his claim
for the remaining 14 tiaos, because he was cured.
Our only charge is a small one for food, just enough
to cover its purchase, and even this we often provide
for the utterly destitute. We receive, however, more
money as thank-offerings from patients than we could
by charging a registration fee. One time-honoured
Chinese custom is to present a tablet, which is hung in
some conspicuous position in or outside the building.
Of these we have already more than we need, and our
friends are not encouraged to add to the number. Our
subscription book is shown to all well-to-do patients and
THE NEW HOSPITAL. 51
visitors, and we are gradually accustoming them to the
idea that we prefer money for the hospital rather than
Of course some take advantage of us, and give nothing
when they could well afford it. About thirty miles
away lives a prosperous inn-keeper, who was blind from
cataract. This year both eyes have been operated on,
and his sight is now very good. He is an old man and
rather deaf But it was remarkable how his deafness
increased when the subject of religion was introduced ;
and he was deafest of all when my assistant explained to
him that he ought to show his gratitude in a more practical
way than words, and subscribe to pay for the keep of
some who were not so well off as he. As he was too
deaf to hear a word of this, the subscription book was
brought, and he was made to use his newly found sight
in examining it. After this he could refuse no longer,
and put his name down for fifty tiaos, 25/ — which has
not been paid yet. But to all teaching he remains
obdurate. Passing through his village some time after-
wards, I stayed at his inn, and he was loud in his
praises of what I had done for him. " Do not thank
me," I said, "thank God. It is by His mercy you see."
"No, no! not at all! It is all the doctor's skill!" he
protested. This is fortunately an exceptional case.
We are convinced that medical fees would greatly
lessen the influence of our work as a benevolent agency.
52 TEN YEARS IN MANCHUBIA.
However small the charge, the Chinese would regard us
as merchants, and it would be difficult to convince them
that we were not making a profit. As it is, subscriptions
are increasing. Twenty taels (£5) were on one occasion
sent by an official, but the servant to whom he entrusted
it absconded, and has never been seen since. When His
Excellency heard of it he laughed heartily, and sent
twenty taels more. The same sum has been given
several times by others. The poor, too, often give a
little, the smallest sum we have received being 500
cash ("about 3d.).
EVANGELISTIC WORK. 53
"T~T is difficult to speak separately of our Evangelistic
Department, for it forms an integral part of every
branch of our work. All our assistants and students are
Christian, and by word and example do much in
commending the Gospel to others. The day's work is
begun by having worship with the in-patients, after
which we go round the hospital wards. The out-patients
begin to gather at an early hour, especially in summer,
and preaching goes on all forenoon in the waiting-room.
Some who have time at their disposal remain to hear
more, after being examined and prescribed for. Much
of what is said there is but seed by the wayside ; but
now and again there is a little good ground too, and a
man who has begun to listen because he had nothing
better to do while waiting, goes on to enquire because
the "words are good." And on the hearts of many
who go their way apparently untouched, an impression
is made, so that when, perhaps years afterwards, the
54 TEN YEAES IN MANCHURIA.
Gospel once more comes near to them, they receive it
with gladness. Some buy books and tracts, and these
find their way to distant homes where a missionary has
never been seen.
In the hospital more satisfactory religious work is
done. Besides the morning worship there is a service
every afternoon when an address is given. Attendance
at these meetings is purely optional, but the majority
of the patients come gladly, the hymn-singing being a
great attraction. The most important part of all our
definitely spiritual work, however, is conversation with
the patients individually ; for in this way we get near
to them, are able to meet their difiiculties, and bring
the truth home to them. Our patients are usually
with us for weeks, sometimes months ; and when we
have room we encourage enquirers to stay with us as
long as they can.
One great change has taken place in our methods of
work since the early days. Patients used frequently to
be baptized from the hospital or dispensary, so that we
could reckon in numbers the additions to the church
which were the direct fruit of our work. During the
first four and a half years, fifty-four patients were
baptized, but after that a new arrangement was made.
The church had greatly extended, persecution of its
members had in large measure died out, and it was
feared that some might seek to enter it without
EVANGELISTIC WORK. 55
realizing what this implied. So it was agreed that,
unless under exceptional circumstances, no man should
be baptized until he had passed through three months'
probation, after expressing his desire for the rite.
Thus our patients are not baptized as hospital converts,
but each man in his own home enters the church like
any other enquirer ; and it is impossible to have any
idea of the numbers brought in through the medical
mission. Many villages are represented on our register.
Last year there were over 300, some of them very
many miles from Moukden. A list is kept of those
who seem interested, and every now and then the
evangelist spends a few weeks in visiting these people
in their homes, and bringing them into contact with
the nearest congregation. We are thus unable to say
much about fruit gathered in recently, but the spiritual
influence of the work is far greater than in the early
days. Many of the patients of former years have been
baptized within the past few years, and we hope that the
enquirers of the present will make the converts of the
future. We are chary of being over-confident of any
man whom time has not proved. Sometimes those of
whom we are very hopeful fall back sadly, while others
who seem in no way remarkable become centres of
.56 TEN Y'EARS IN MANOHUIUA.
Work by Converts.
In the autumn of 1886, a young man from a village
near Tie-ling came to us to be cured of the opium
habit. He was but twenty-five, but had smoked for
five years "for pleasure," he said; and now the pleasure
had become a very inconvenient one. He seemed very
determined to give it up, and also became an earnest
enquirer. When he went home, he continued to read
our books and frequented the chapel in Tie-ling,
where, in the following spring, he was baptized.
Shortly before his baptism, two brothers, relatives of
his, came down to Moukden, also, to be treated for
opium smoking. They were middle-aged men ; one
had smoked for twenty years, the other seemed in bad
health ; and, altogether, they were not nearly such
promising cases as their young friend. They had heard
the gospel from him, and learned as much as they
could while with us. A few months later they, too,
were admitted into the church in Tie-ling. Time
passed on. One by one their friends and neighbours
became Christians too, till now, out of that village of
about 100 souls, thirty are members, and only one
family keeps up any form of idol worship. It has
practically become a Christian village. But the younw
man who was the beginning of it all has fallen back
sadly. For several years he did well, studied faithfully.
EVANGELISTIC WOEK. 57
and was taken on as an evangelist. He was a favourite
with every one, but, unfortunately, was too easily led.
Opium once more gained its hold over him ; deceit,
lying, and other evils followed in its train, and he had
to be dismissed from the service of the church. The
two brothers who had followed him into the faith have
stood firm, and proved the mainstay of the little
congregation in that valley. One of them went about
selling tracts and preaching on his own account, and
was instrumental in rousing a great number of the
inhabitants of a large neighbouring valley to turn from
idols to seek the living and true God.
The only out-station in which we have a dispensary
is Tie-ling, a large and growing town about fifty miles
north of Moukden. I visited it first towards the end of
1885, when mission work was just beginning there, and
treated a large number of patients. This visit did
much to remove the anti-foreign feeling which had
been strongly manifested. In 1891, Dr Young opened'
a dispensary there, and visited it once a month to see
patients. The subsequent success of the Mission in
Tie-ling is largely owing to his work. These visits are
still continued as frequently as possible ; but, with our
present staff, the work in Moukden needs all our
strength, and prevents us giving full justice to Tie-ling.
58 TKN YEARS IN MANCHURIA.
During the year 1893, 2,237 men and 1,208 women
were seen there and prescribed for.
To the work of itinerating, also, I have been
compelled to give less time than I would wish. My
last medico-evangelistic jom-ney, in the spring of 1893,
strengthened my conviction as to the importance of this
department. Along with one of my dispensers I saw
patients on four days in three large towns. In that
time 680 cases were treated, and several hundred
disappointed people had to return as they came,
because our medicines were exhausted. It is true that
this work is not very satisfactory either from a medical
or an evangelistic point of view, as the patients are, for
the most part, seen only once. Many, however, are
relieved and some cured, prejudices are broken down, a
friendly feeling is produced, and thus the way is opened
up for the Gospel.
One of the greatest difficulties experienced in
carrying on medical missionary work in China is that
of finding suitable assistants. Our standard must
necessarily be high as to previous education, personal
character, and Christian knowledge. But our church
EVANGELISTIC WORK. 59
contains few educated men, and still fewer who can
afford or are willing to receive for years only a student's
allowance. Then, when we do find a man who seems
to be what we desire, there is great danger of the very
training we give proving a snare to him. As soon as
he has learned a little of the healing art, he is tempted
to leave us, set up for himself, and try to make a
profitable business. We have learned, by somewhat
bitter experience, the need of the utmost carefulness as
to what men we employ.
The first man I engaged was Hung Sze Knei, who
acted as my personal teacher. He had been left an
orphan in a country village, had come to Moukden to
push his fortune, and was making a miserable pittance
by picture-drawing. He was one of the early members,
baptized at the beginning of 1879 at the age of
thirty-one, but was still in the utmost poverty when,
nearly four years later, he was employed by us. As
soon as we opened the dispensary he began to assist
me, and afterwards became head-dispenser.
Shortly before Hung entered the church, a man of a
very different stamp had been baptized of the name of
Wei-Hsiao-Ta. His family was well to do ; he had
received a good education, and was employed in a large
drug-shop in Moukden. From boyhood his mind had
60 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA.
a religious bent, and at one time he wished to become
a Buddhist priest; but now Christianity satisfied all
his aspirations. Those in authority in his shop, however,
did not approve of his new ideas, and when he one day
refused to sacrifice to the god of medicine as he was
ordered, he was summarily dismissed. In the autumn of
1883, when at the age of twenty-five, I engaged him as
my assistant, and for the next four years he and Hung
were my only medical helpers. I taught them what I
could, and they succeeded in picking up a good deal,
especially Mr Wei.
When our new hospital was opened in 1887, it was
necessary to have additional help, and I took in four
young men as students. Unfortunately, only one of
these was a Christian, as it was impossible to find
suitable men in the membership. This did not prove a
very successful experiment. Within a year we parted
with two of them ; and the remaining two, both by this
time members, after having much time and trouble
expended on them, have had to be dismissed ; one for
opium-smoking, the other for dishonesty. Hung, too,
has caused great disappointment. He had been with us
ten years, and much had been done for him; but he left
us a few months ago in a way not very creditable to his
Christian profession. Indulgence in the use of alcohol
was in great measure to blame for this ; and now, in the
desire to make more than the salary we were able to
EVANGELISTIC WORK. 61
give him, he is proclaiming himself as fully qualified to
practise the western method of healing,
Mr Wei, on the other hand, becomes month by-
month of more use to me ; and the work could not well
be carried on without his assistance. In later years,
when the teaching has been more systematic, no one
has shown more interest in it than he ; and he has now
acquired a very fair knowledge both of medicine and
surgery. He is able to examine and prescribe for a
considerable portion of the out-door patients; and he
performs minor operations very satisfactorily. He thus
relieves me of a large part of the work, and I have
never had reason to regret the confidence I have placed
In the autumn of 1891 I made it known that I was
prepared to receive the names of Christian young men
who were willing to devote themselves to the work of
medical-evangelists. Within a few months a number
applied, out of whom fourteen were selected as fit for
examination on their own classics and Christian know-
ledge. Six of these were enrolled as students, and
agreed to undergo a course of five years' study. With
so much other work depending on me, it is impossible
to devote so much time as could be desired to the
training of these young men. During their first spring
62 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA.
and summer they were taught pharmacy arid dispensing;
and at the end of the session they passed a creditable
examination. The following winter I lectured on
Anatomy and Chemistry ; last summer on the eye and
its diseases ; and this winter our principal subject is
Physiology. Besides this, they receive regular instruction
in chemical medicine and surgery ; they dispense all the
medicine to the out-patients ; and each has charge of a
ward where he does all the work of dressing, and a good
deal of what is done by nurses in our home infirmaries.
On the whole, the young men now under training have
given great satisfaction, and promise to become useful
Avorkers in the Master's vineyard.
women's work. 63
"TN many parts of China it seems to be very difficult
fora medical missionaryto reach the female population ;
but this is not so in Moukden, nor in the towns and
villages round. From the very first about a quarter of
our patients were women, and these seemed to be very
little reluctant about consulting a male doctor, especially
when they found his wife with him. The principal
barrier here is not sex but nationality ; and the women,
being far more ignorant than their husbands, retain
their prejudices and superstitions longer. But with the
gradual diminution of suspicion of the foreigner, the
number of our female patients has increased, and now
forms more than a third of the whole. For the first
four years of our work we had no way of treating women
except as out-patients, but several of these were led into
the church through what they heard in the waiting-room.
Our dispensary was frequently visited by an old
woman of sixty, broken down with chronic rheumatism
and other complaints. She came at first for her bodily
64 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA.
ailments, but continued to attend regularly to listen to
the preaching, and in October 1884 she was baptized.
She was never a very intelligent women, and seems
now to be in her dotage; but almost every Sunday,
leaning on her big stick, she makes her way to the
church. She was asked one day how much she under-
stood of the service. " / can 't understand," she said, as
if that was far too much to expect of her, " I just
understand ' Jesus loves me," " referring to the well
known hymn which had just been sung.
Another frequent attender at the dispensary was a
girl of fourteen, who was greatly interested in the
preaching, and soon made up her mind that she would
be Jesus' disciple. In September 1885 she was examined
for baptism ; but she got so excited when questioned,
that she answered wildly, and it was thought better to
delay until she should be a little older. The poor child
was greatly disappointed, and went home crying bitterly.
A month later she begged to be examined again, and
was found to have grown wonderfully in knowledge.
She seemed a sincere believer in Christ, so she was
baptized without further delay. After this she spent a
few years in the Members' Girls' School, and was one of
the most intelligent pupils. She is now a wife and
mother in a Christian home.
We, of course, felt greatly the want of a place for
female in-patients; so when our new premises were
WOME^''S WORK. 65
arranged, a part of the compound was set aside for
women, and opened for their use in the spring of 1888.
By walling it off completely from the rest of the hospital,
and putting its only entrance in front towards the
dispensary, we thought it was sufficiently like a separate
compound to allow of women coming to stay there. We
had not opened it many months before we found our
mistake ; for women were reluctant to enter it, except
those of the poorest classes. One of those we received
during the first summer was a girl of seventeen from
the neighbourhood of Kai-yuen. She was much
impressed with what she heard, but she returned home
and we heard no more about her. With women even
more frequently than with men, the bread cast upon the
waters is only found after many days ; for it is difficult
for a woman openly to avow herself a Christian, unless
those in her home are in sympathy. Three years
afterwards Mr Ross was visting the neighbourhood of
Kai-yuen, and among those baptised was this girl.
Her old father, aged seventy-seven, and her brother,
had been led to enquire by listening to her words, and
were admitted to the church along with her.
A great advance was made in the medical work
among women when their hospital was removed to a
66 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA.
separate compound, even though that compound is far
from suitable. It was rented in April 1892 as a
temporary place, but we are still using it. We hope
soon to get a suitable site for building, but we are
meeting with the same difficulties now as formerly in
the case of the Men's Hospital. Much blessing, however,
has attended our work among the women. We have a
very good worker in our matron, Mrs Wang, who does
not spare herself night nor day, ministering to the
bodily and spiritual wants of the patients. On Women's
Days she spends the forenoon in the dispensary, and to
this may largely be attributed the increased readiness
which women show in entering the hospital. This is
specially Mrs Christie's department, as she takes entire
charge of all but the strictly medical work. Most of the
patients are accompanied by a relative to attend on
them, so that the number who come under our roof is
much larger than appears from the statistics. Many
have shown great interest in Christian truth, and have
invited Mrs Wang to visit them and tell them more.
Unfortunately her hospital duties leave her little time
for this important work, but she has visited several
homes, and has been very warmly received. A monthly
meeting is now being started for former patients and
their friends ; and it is hoped that by this means those
living within reach, who become interested while with
us, may be led further into the light, and may by and
women's work. 67
by come forward to profess their faith in Christ. One
woman was baptized in the summer of 1892, after being
some time in the hospital ; and then returned to her
home, forty miles away among the hills, to proclaim to
all her friends what she had learned. Nine months
later she returned for further instruction, saying that
her husband and about a dozen of her neighbours
believed in Christ.
Vis i ting Patien ts.
One important work among women has been carried
on quite apart from hospital or dispensary. It is often
impossible for the wives and daughters of Mandarins to
come to us, so I have been from the first frequently
called to treat them in their own homes, Mrs Christie
often accompanying me. There were, of course, some
little difficulties to be overcome. For instance, in 1884!
I was asked to see a lady, who for eighteen months had
suffered great pain in one foot owing to tight-binding.
But there is nothing to which a China woman is more
averse than imcovering her foot, even before those of
her own sex, and much more before a man ; so the
process of examination on my first visit was rather
comical. The foot and leg were held by several
attendants, and only the diseased part was shown. On
subsequent visits, however, I was allowed to see it
properly, and to operate. The calls to visit, in their
68 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA.
houses, both men and women of all ranks, are indeed
far too numerous to be responded to, interesting and
important as this work is. Only those can be attended
in this way who are quite unable to come to us.
SOME CONDITIONS WHICH INFLUENCE DISEASE. 69
SOME CONDITIONS WHICH INFLUENCE DISEASE.
rPHE latitude of Moukden is 41° 51' 00" N., about the
same as that of Rome and Chicago ; but it will be
noticed from the following Table, that our extremes, both
of heat and cold, are very great. The climate of Manchuria
is distinctly continental ; not affected by oceanic currents,
and the wide level plain of the southern province has
no shelter from the cold blasts which in winter sweep
across the Siberian and Mongolian plains. The absence
of forests and larger vegetation also influences the
temperature and humidity. (Unfortunately we have no
reliable observations of the humidity of the atmosphere.)
Although the temperature sometimes falls to 30° fahr.
below zero, and rises in summer to 97°, so dry is the
•atmosphere that the sensations do not indicate such
The phenomena of disease fluctuate with the seasons.
On the whole the Winter months are favourable to
SOME CONDITIONS WHICH INFLUENCE DISEASE. 71
health ; at least to such as are comfortably housed and
clad. The atmosphere is usually clear, dry, bracing,
somewhat stimulating to the nervous system, and
therefore trying to those suffering from insomnia,
cardiace, weakness, hysteria, and other diseases of
nervous origin. During this season, as might be
expected, pulmonary and rheumatic affections head the
list. Phthisis has many victims among the poor, and
especially young women. In some the disease- runs a
very rapid course, with all the symptoms of acute
tuberculosis. Many of these patients live in over-
crowded, badly ventilated rooms with damp mud floors,
and expectorate freely anywhere. The atmosphere
must be loaded with bacilli, yet the idea of the
communicability of the disease never seems to have
entered the Chinese mind. Sfitting of blood is common,
very often without any physical sign to account for it.
In many of these cases the cause is said by the patient
to have been a fit of anger. Under treatment, the
symptom usually disappears without leaving any trace
of structural disease. Frost-bite, of more or less
severity, is almost daily met with ; and the mortality
among beggars from exposure during the extreme cold
is very great. Sometimes, in the early winter, a fog
hangs over the earth, with a few days of mild
temperature, which the Chinese regard as most
unhealthy. In 1892, such a condition was followed by
72 TKN YEAllS IN MANCHURIA.
a severe epidemic of Influenza, from which natives and
foreigners suffered alike.
As Spring approaches, the changes of temperature
are great and sudden. In March, high south winds
prevail ; hard roads are rapidly broken up so as to be
almost impassable ; and frozen rivers become navigable
once more. The high tension of winter is relaxed, the
digestive powers seem weakened, appetite fails, and
many suffer from great depression of the physical
energies. Measles and Scarlet-fever are not infrequent
at this time. In an epidemic of the former which
visited us last spring, the cases first treated were mild ;
but it soon developed into a very malignant form,
attended with high and persistejit fever and severe
pulmonary complications. Convalescence was generally
slow, being, in some cases, retarded by glandular
abscesses and pustular eruptions. A common cause of
Eye-disease about this season is dust-storms. The
atmosphere is then loaded with sand and impalpable
dust. This, driven by the strong wind, makes itself
most disagreeable to travellers, and penetrates into
every corner even of the best-built house. The
temperature during spring and autumn is moderate,
and the weather generally very pleasant.
In summer, the atmosphere is dry; but there are
occasional heavy showers lasting for a few hours. The
heat usually attains its height towards the end of July.
SOME CONDITIONS WHICH INFLUENCE DISEASE. 73
This year, during the latter half of that month, the
day-temperature ranged from 91° F. to 96° F. ; but
during the night the thermometer is rarely above 7o° F.
The natives move about with heads uncovered during
the greatest heat, and do not seem to suffer in any way
from the exposure. The atmospheric conditions at this
season favour the development of diseases of the
alimentary system. Diarrhoea and Dysentery are very
prevalent. The heavy rains generally begin early in
August, after which cooler weather sets in.
The development of Malaria during the last few years
is worthy of note. In former reports, covering a period
of five years, only twenty-eight cases were recorded,
and most of these came from other parts of China.
Last year, over 400 came under treatment at the
dispensary. The increase was first noticed in the
spring of 1889, and was attributed to the floods of the
previous autumn. At that time, large stretches of
country were under water, and the subsoil became
saturated. During the following summer, the action of
the powerful sun causing evaporation, and the
decomposition of vegetable matter, brought about the
conditions favourable to the development of the disease.
Since then the number of cases has steadily increased.
The variety met with is chiefly the intermittent, and
74 TEX YEARS IN MANCHURIA.
the majority of our patients have been young men. I
have not observed that opium smoking affords any
protection. The natives seem very helpless in the
matter of treatment. They know a little about the
value of arsenic, but they do not understand how to
administer it ; and my assistant tells me that he
believes as many are killed as are cured by it.
Another local condition which influences disease is
the insanitary surroundings of the people. In the
midst of populous parts of the city are large stagnant
ponds, the water of which is used for all purposes.
Anything of the nature of drainage, or cleaning of
streets or compounds, is quite unknown. The interior
of the houses of the poorer class is often filthy beyond
description ; and the personal habits of the people are
far from cleanly. Yet it is surprising how little
the Chinese seem to suffer from diseases which arise
from such conditions.
The staple food of most of the people, large millet, is
coarse and, when badly cooked, very indigestible. It
is usually gulped down in large quantities, along with
salted cabbage, hard beans, garlic, or raw vegetables,
causing delatation of the stomach and all forms of
Dyspepsia. Fish, eggs, and meat are eaten in advanced
SOME CONDITIONS WHICH INFLUENCE DISEASE. 75
stages of decomposition ; and in summer a great deal of
unripe fruit is consumed. This also frequently gives
rise to disorders of the digestive system.
It is a remarkable fact that during ten years' work in
Manchuria not a single case of Rickets has come under
observation, although the factors which are considered
most potent in its causation are met with on every
hand. If bad feeding, farinaceous diet, prolonged
lactation, overcrowding, deficient sunlight, or bad
ventilation produce the disease, it should be found in
every home. Some children are from birth fed on rice,
flour, or millet-slops, which contain starch in abundance,
and the use of cow's milk is unknown. Suckling is
usually prolonged to the age of three or four years,
sometimes longer, when the mother's milk is most
unwholesome. Thousands of children are, during the
severe cold of winter, shut up for months in over-
crowded, badly ventilated dwellings, where they have
neither fresh air nor exercise. And yet Rickets, so far
0,s I can find out, is unknown in Manchuria.
Opium smoking, which is very common in this part
of China, has an important bearing on many kinds of
disease. It is estimated that about forty per cent, of
76 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA.
the adult male population of Moukden indulge in it,
and a large number of women, especially those
belonging to the upper class. Indian opium is chiefly-
used by the rich, but is fast being supplanted by the
native-grown article, which is much cheaper. Opium
pills and foreign morphia tabloids are used by some as
a more convenient form ; for smoking requires much
time, and often interferes with business. Many of the
poor drink an infusion made from the ashes and
scrapings of the pipe.
Some begin to use opium to relieve pain. Others
take it to cheer them in sorrow and trouble, or to
distract their thoughts ; for the Chinese have no such^
social pleasures as we have in the west ; their lives are
colourless and tame. But the vast majority smoke
merely as a luxury, in order to enjoy the pleasant
exhilaration which it causes for a time.
The effect of opium on the system is greatly modified
by circumstances. It is said that some men of strong
will increase the dose so slowly, that they never go
beyond what is called moderation, and are not
incapacitated from pursuing their calling. There is
some truth in this ; for those who are in comfortable
circumstances, with healthy surroundings, good food,
and strong constitutions, can smoke for a lengthened
period without any apparent deleterious result. The
careless observer might conclude that the habit was for
SOME CONDITIONS WHICH INFLUENCE DISEASE. 77
them harmless ; but I do not believe that anyone uses
opium for any length of time without more or less real
injury: digestion is impaired, the secretions of important
organs are diminished, functional activity is lowered,
and the powers of resistance are greatly lessened, so
that the consiimer is extremely liable to succumb to
acute disease. In an epidemic of Cholera in 1883, the
mortality among opium smokers was appalling. The
Chinese went so far as to say that no smoker who was
seized with the disease recovered. An official of my
acquaintance smoked heavily for thirty years and
seemed none the worse, but I should not like to be his
medical attendant through any serious illness.
On the other hand I have met with hundreds who,
with half the quantity smoked by that official, have
had body and mind shattered ; and very many are
reduced to poverty, having spent their all to satisfy
their craving. One of these had occupied an important
official position, but he and his family were reduced to
poverty and despair. He came to me to be cured of the
habit, and was admitted to the hospital. He was old,
feeble, and his heart very weak ; and after some days of
careful treatment and observation, I came to the
conclusion, that giving up opium, which he had used so
long, would mean death to him. When I told him this,
he pled with me to take away his life rather than leave
him helpless in his miserable condition.
78 TEN YEARS IN MANCHUKrA.
A more serious evil even than misery and beggary is
the moral effect on the consumer. The immediate
result of a dose or smoke of opium is mental stimulation ;
but with prolonged, even with moderate use, the
nervous centres are affected, the higher faculties of the
mind are enfeebled, the moral sensibility is gradually
blunted, and the ethical distinction between right and
wrong, truth and falsehood, becomes confused. The
Chinese themselves recognise this, and do not trust an
opium smoker; and merchants in this city do not
readily employ any young man who has acquired the
habit. I have conversed on the subject with many
intelligent men, officials and others, and even among
those who use it, I have never met one who said
anything in its favour.
Many desire to give up opium smoking, especially
when its evil effects begin to appear, or when they can
no longer afford it ; but so firm is the hold it gains over
them that very few succeed in overcoming it without
help. In the early years of our work such people came
to us in large numbers as out-patients, and for these I
prepared pills, containing tonics combined with a small
quantity of morphia, which was gradually diminished.
There was a great demand for this medicine, but I soon
found that the cure was worse than the disease ; for they
only learned to eat instead of smoke the drug. Morphia
tabloids have been given away in large quantities by
SOME CONDITIONS WHICH INFLUENCE DISEASE. 79
well-meaning people, and have, in my opinion, done
In later years we have only treated opium smokers as
in-patients, and we cut off all forms of the drug from
the commencement ; or, if absolutely necessary, inject a
little morphia hypodermically. Our rules for such
patieats are stringent, and their physical powers and
strength of will are tried severely. But this branch of
our work is most unsatisfactory. Even after resolutely
enduring the suffering caused by the renunciation of
opium, the majority of those whom we have treated
have returned, sooner or later, to their old habit. As
our accommodation is limited and can be better used for
other patients, we now admit very few of this class,
those few being such as seem in dead earnest. The
native church has unanimously agreed that no opium
smoker should be baptized until he has entirely given
up the habit; and several of those treated this year were
applicants for baptism. The grace of God can and does
enable opium smokers to stand firm ; but they stand on
slippery ground, and, sad to say, many fall of whom we
had hoped better things.
In the spring of 1886 a young man from the neigh-
bourhood of Kai-yuen came to us to be cured of the
opium habit. He was employed in a government office,
and it is said that 80 per cent, of these yamen men
smoke. He had begun seven years before, and was now
80 TEN YEARS IN MANCHUKIA.
using about a quarter of an ounce dailj'. The struggle
in givingjit up was, for him, a severe one, and for nights
his eyes did not close in sleep, in spite of sleeping
draughts. One evening about seven o'clock, a week after
his admission, my assistant came for me in great alarm,
saying that this man had suddenly gone mad. I found
him outside the hospital, much excited, held by two
men, and quite unable to give any account of himself.
No one could explain his condition, but I at once
suspected Chloral Hydrate poisoning. Investigation
revealed that a bottle, which the dispenser had carelessly
left within his reach, containing at least two drachms of
Chloral Hydrate, was now empty. The patient soon
became comatose, and it was not until after seven hours'
active application of remedies that we were able to
bring him back to consciousness. Next day, though
sleepy, he did not seem much the worse. In about ten
days more the craving for opium had entirely ceased,
and his general health was established. He stayed
with us for a month longer to learn more of Christianity,
and was baptized before going home. Being a scholar
and an intelligent man, he was able to read our books,
and seemed well fitted to proclaim the gospel to others.
This he did to his family and friends, and witnessed a
good confession in spite of much persecution. The
following spring he brought his wife and children to
Moukden, where they also were baptized. The same
SOME CONDITIONS WHICH INFLUENCE DISEASE. 81
year he voluntarily accompanied me on a medico-
evangelistic journey, and made himself most useful in
keeping order among the patients. On our way back
we visited his home — a Christian home, which seemed
likely to be a centre of light for that district.
On my return from furlough a few years later,
I was grieved beyond measure to learn that this man
had fallen back, and was smoking as much as ever.
His position in the Yaraen exposed him to daily,
almost hourly temptation, against which he had been
unable to stand. We have, however, by no means lost
hope of him ; but his case shows how difificult it is for
one who has come under the bondage of this habit to
regain his freedom.
Another influence in aggravating if not causing
disease, is the methods of treatment adopted by the
natives. Any man may practise medicine who wishes
to do so ; he has only to read a few books written
centuries ago, and he is fully equipped. The best of
them know nothing of those sciences which form the
basis for the rational treatment of disease. Medicines
they have, but they do not understand their action on
the system. According to Chinese theory the human body
is composed of five elements ; metal, wood, water, fire,
and earth. As long as these are in equilibrium health
82 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA.
is enjoyed ; when they are out of proportion disease
ensues, and the object of treatment is to bring them
back to their normal relations. Medicines are classified
according to the five colours — white, green, black, red,
and yellow — and the five tastes — bitter, acrid, sour,
sweet, and salt, — corresponding in order to the five
elements, and to the five organs of the body — lungs,
liver, kidneys, heart, and stomach. Disease is diagnosed
by the pulse, the left indicating the condition of the
heart, liver, and kidneys ; and the right the lungs,
stomach, and the " gate of life." When a patient enters
the consulting-room for the first time he does not expect
to be asked any questions. Silently he stretches out
one hand after the other, and the doctor, by placing
three fingers on each pulse, is supposed to recognise
the seat and nature of the disease.
Of Surgery, Chinese doctors know nothing. They
cannot tie an artery, amputate a finger, or perform the
simplest operation. There is at present in the hospital
a man with a severe gun-shot wound. The other day,
after the extraction of a piece of bone, a quantity of
pure mercury poured out. The patient explained that
a native doctor had put it in, assuring him that it would
melt the bullet, and that both would flow out together.
Another patient now under our care is a boy of nine
who, about a month ago, twisted his leg while playing.
He complained of pain, but could move about quite
SOME CONDITIONS WHICH INFLUENCE DISEASE. 83
freely. There was no doctor in the village, but one old
woman after another was consulted. In spite of their
rubbing or kneading the pain continued, so the parents
took the boy to a famous doctor in Moukden. This
man with great violence pulled and twisted the limb, till
the boy was screaming with agony. Before this operation
the patient could walk well, but now he could not even
stand. Twenty days later he was brought to us. The
hip was much, swollen, and so painful that examination
was impossible till chloroform was administered. The
joint was found to be dislocated, doubtless as the result
of the heroic treatment to which it had been subjected.
The father said that ever since that day the limb had
been bent and shorter than the other. The dislocation
was easily reduced, and we hope to see the little fellow
all right again in a few weeks.
The only instruments which natives use are long
needles with which they pierce various parts of the
body. Several cases have come under my observation
where this treatment was followed by disastrous results.
Having no knowledge of Anatomy, they often pass them
into large blood-vessels and important organs ; and I
am told that in some instances immediate death has
resulted. A little child was carried to the dispensary
presenting a pitiable spectacle. The doctor had told
the parents that there was an excess of fire in its body,
for which he must use cold needles, so he had pierced
84 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA.
the abdomen deeply in several places. The poor little
sufferer must have died shortly afterwards.
Another very injurious method of treatment is the
application of a black resinous plaster, which is univer-
sally used for all kinds of aches and pains, bruises and
swellings, wounds and sores. A small pimple or abscess
appears ; at once the plaster is put on, and the free exit
of any discharges prevented. The result often is serious
disease. Indeed, in almost every case of bone or joint
disease which comes to us, the condition is aggravated,
if not caused by, this deadly plaster; and yet the
Chinese, from the highest to the lowest, have unbounded
faith in it. A short time ago a little boy of nine was
carried to the dispensary in a basket. One leg was
covered with the plaster, and when this was removed,
the smell could almost be " heard," as the Chinese say.
A large part of the tibia was bare and projecting. His
mother said that no medicine had been applied except
this plaster, which had been put on first about fifteen
months before, when there was only a small sore place.
We took him into the hospital, treated the leg ration-
ally, and after a few days the diseased bone was entirely
removed. His satisfactorj' recovery is another instance
of the recuperative power of the Chinese, already
alluded to. When he came he was much emaciated,
with weak rapid pulse and bad cough, and death seemed
not far off. In a few weeks he was walking about the
SOME CONDITIONS WHICH INFLUENCE DISEASE. 85
women's hospital, rosy and strong, as merry as a boy
could be, and was learning very fast to read and sing
our hymns. He and his mother, w^ho was with him in
the hospital, have made a stand against the worship of
idols in their home, and we hope that the whole family
may, by and by, become Christians.
When there is an open sore in any part of the body,
the native doctors very often put in medicine having
caustic properties, which causes much mischief One
young man came to us recently suffering from disease
of the cervical glands, a very common complaint here.
An abscess had formed and burst some months previously;
and I found the caustic medicine used had burrowed its
way under the stemo-Tnastoid muscle, setting up
severe inflammation of the deeper structures. I cut down
on the part, removed the irritating substance, scraped out
the diseased glands, and the patient was dismissed
When all remedies fail, the natives too often resort
to witchcraft, and apply to those who profess to have
dealings with the unseen agencies which control disease.
I have at present, as a patient, an official of high rank
and fair intelligence, who, not more that a month ago,
consulted a witch-doctor. He received a paper with
some mystic characters, and, according to directions, he
burned it, mixed the ashes with water, and drank the
decoction. This was taken to prevent the return of a
86 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA.
disease to which he is liable, but for which I am not
Possession by Evil Spirits.
The most cruel and barbarous treatment of all is
carried out in the case of those unfortunate people who
are believed to be possessed by evil spirits. A poor
woman was brought to us, whose mind was evidently
deranged, but who had been pronounced possessed. A
red-hot poker had been forced into her mouth, and
thrust down her throat. Others are compelled to
" wear red shoes," which means to stand bare-footed on
a red-hot piece of iron. Other treatment is sometimes
adopted which is too terrible to describe.
It is difficult for those in Christian countries to
conceive the vast amount of suffering in this land which
might be prevented, disease which might be cured,
sorrow which might be comforted. Not only are doors
opening to the Gospel on every hand, but out of the
darkness and misery which surround us, calls come
for help, spiritual and physical, to which we are unable
to respond. And in these do we not hear the voice of
the Master calling us to do the work which He Himself
began, and which He has committed to our charge?
Were these things realized, the Christian Church would
SOME CONDITIONS WHICH INFIUENCE DIS'EASE. 87
surely rise to her responsibility and put forth her
strength ; for the harvest in Manchuria is great, while
the labourers are still but few.
It will be seen from the tables of statistics (pages
90-91) that there has been a most encouraging increase
in our numbers, and that more patients were treated in
1893 than in any other previous year. In summer
they often numbered from 120 to 150 on men's days,
Mondays and Thursdays. On Tuesdays and Fridays
women are seen, sometimes as many as ninety ; and the
forenoons of Wednesdays and Saturdays are reserved
for operations. The fall in 1891 was largely owing to
the disquieting rumours afloat at the time of the riots at
Wuhu and other places. It will be noticed, too, that
our numbers are low in February, as the Chinese new
year occurs in that month, or at the end of January.
Everyone is then busy, and there is a superstitious
prejudice against taking medicine at that season.
1 — 1
LIST OF DISEASES— IN-PATIENTS, 1893.
Wound of Eye-lid
^ Internal Strabismus
Disease of Lachrymal Gland
Conjunotivities — Catarrhal
Wound of Eye-ball
Papilloma of Conjunctiva
Ulcer of Cornea
Opacity of Cornea
Wound of do.
Fibroma of do.
Hepatic Abscess ...
Internal Hsemorrhoicls . .
Valvular disease (Mitral)
Fistula in Ano ...
Abscess of Lung
Peripleuritic Abscess . . .
Perinephritic Abscess . .
Rheumatism (Chronic) ...
Bell's Paralysis ...
Progressive Miisc. Atrop
Enlarged Cervical Glands
Abscess of Spine
Disease of Joints...
LIST OF OPERATIONS, 1893.
FOR DISEASES OF —
Excision (for Trachoma)
Lachrymal Apparatus —
Excision of Gland
FOK DISEASES OF —
Removal of foreign body
Cataract — Hard
Needling for Opaque Capsule
■Upper Extremity —
FOR DISEASES OF —
Lower Extremity —
Ankle Joint (Syme's)
ON BONES AND JOINTS.
GOUGING, SEQUESTEOTOMY, OK
KESBOTION, FOR CARIES OR
NECROSIS OF —
VI. TUMOURS (Excised).
Nasal Polypus (Fibrous)
Do. do. (Mucous)
Enlarged Cervical Glands
Carbuncle (Incisions) ...
Skin Grafting ...
Removal of Dead Tissue
Extraction of Needles
Sewing Severe Wound
Alimentary System —
Excision of Uvula
1 00 APPENDIX.
Fistula in Ano
Sinus of Rectum
Reducing prolapsed Rectum
Urinary System —
Tapping, &c. —
Do. (Radical Cure) ..
N.B. — The above lists of Diseases and Operations cover a period of
about sixteen months.